Soil formation, structure, physical quantities, power sources. Tectonics, seismology, engineering geological characteristics of rocks, stratigraphy, geological map, weathering, erosion. Crystallography: geometric crystallography (basic cell, bonds in structures structural investigations); crystal physics: optical properties of crystals (optic indicatrix, anisotropy, birefringent, reflective ability, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope), hardness, cleavage, elasticity. Minerals: optical and chemical properties, shape appearance, the formation of minerals. Macroscopic identification of the most important ore minerals and ore-forming materials. The characteristics, origin and genesis of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; geochemical characteristics, classification of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, systematics, and their appearance in Slovenia.