Rock-forming minerals. Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.
Geological time: stratigraphy, geological time scale, absolute dating methods.
Origin of the Universe and matter, evolution and differentiation of the Solar system and the Earth.
Internal structure of the Earth, seismology, physical conditions in the Earth’s interior.
Plate tectonics; divergent, convergent and transform margins, mechanisms of plate motion, origin of the lithosphere, plate tectonics and the rock cycle.
The origin and evolution of Earth’s atmosphere and hydrosphere. Sea-level changes.
Paleoclimatology: global oceanic and atmospheric circulation, climate regulation and feedbacks, climates in the Earth’s history.
Evolution of life on Earth: fossils and evolution, the origin of life, major milestones in development of life, mass extinctions.
Geological structures, basic geometrical techniques of structural analysis (maps, cross-sections, structural contours), interpretation of terrain history from structure, basic measurement techniques with geological compass.
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