Soil structure; vertical and horizontal variability of soil properties.
Soil forming factors and soil development:
Parent material: weathering processes and mineral constituents of soil.
Topography – soil relations with time, soil catenas
Climate: influence of climatic parameters on soil development and soil properties.
Soil organisms: accumulation and decomposition of organic residues, humus synthesis and its importance for soil properties.
Time: weathering and soil development with time.
Morphological, physical and chemical properties of soil: soil texture and structure, density, porosity, color; soil water, soil air and temperature, soil colloids, anion and cation sorption capacity, soil solution.
Biogeochemical cycles of elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg).
Basic methods of soil analyses.
Diagnostic soil horizons, Slovenian soil classification, soils of Slovenia, basis of WRB soil classification, soil information system.
Soil degradation processes.